Abstract: Aquaculture is promoted for food security and poverty alleviation in developing countries. The objective of this study was to identify key potential factors that affect aquaculture productivity among smallholder farmers in South Central region of Vietnam. The field survey was randomly conducted at two sites with 200 respondents, using a pre-tested interview schedule. OLS econometric method was used to address determinants in contributing to successful aquaculture sector in Vietnam. Empirical estimates of striking hurdle revealed that awareness of aquaculture households; climate change, capital investment and environmental sustainability in the region are statistically significant variables that affect the probability of performance and productivity of aquaculture. Implications for policies to improve productivity of aquaculture in the region towards green growth and sustainability were also highlighted.