GENOTYPES ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION AND GENETIC DIVERSITY ASSESSMENT OF BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) GENOTYPES
Published: 31 Jul 2019
Abstract: The significant genotype (G) and environment (E) interaction and genetic diversity in breeding program are an essential issue for breeder to develop new cultivars. An experiment was conducted to assess genetic diversity by cluster and biplot analysis for yield, agro-morphological and quality characters. In this study a total of 25 bread wheat genotypes were tested during 2011-2012 seasons at 4 environments condition. The experiment was conducted in randomized completely blocks design with four replications. Grain yield, days of heading, plant height, lodging resistant, 1000-kernel weight, test weight, protein ratio, gluten value, gluten index, hardness and sedimentation were investigated. Mean grain yield for four locations ranges from 5626 kg ha-1 to the 7356 kg ha-1. The highest grain yield performed by cultivar Bereket and Tekirdağ was the highest yielding location. Environmental variations are important in determining performance of wheat genotypes. Graphical result from PCI showed that the first principal component PC1, explained 40.3% of interaction some of square while the second principal component, PC2 explained 26.8% of some of square interaction. The result of PCA revealed that the 2 principal components (PC1, PC2) contributed 67.2% of the total variability. GGE biplot analysis permitted estimation of interaction effect of a genotype in each environment and it helped to identify genotypes best suited for specific environments. According to biplot, Gelibolu, G9 and G11 are both high yielding and stable. Pehlivan, G7 were the best genotypes as it is more stable than the other genotypes based on TW, TKW, protein ratio and gluten value. We can see that Pehlivan and G7 are also very stable for these parameters and so could be used in a breeding program. The cluster analysis revealed that there is considerable variation among genotypes that could be implicated in selection of bread wheat for the development or improvement of cultivars.
Keywords: bread wheat, genotypes, genetic divergence, ge interaction, gge biplot
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