METHODS OF LENTIVIRAL INFECTION SURVEILLANCE AND DIAGNOSIS IN SHEEP AND GOATS FARMS: REVIEW
Published: 31 Jul 2019
Abstract: Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis and Maedi-Visna are specific diseases of small ruminants. They are caused by RNA viruses (CAEV and MVV) belonging to the family Retroviridae, gen Lentivirus. These viruses are referred to under the generic name of small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs): in this group, five genotypes have been identified (A-E), according to the type of the isolated strains. Meanwhile the viral genome is continuously evolving. The exposure to domesticated ruminants at SRLVs may be very high, if they are subject to high infection pressure as a result of using common areas with small wild ruminants. The choice of the appropriate technique for diagnosis of the SRLVs infections is still a great challenge for many researchers. The aim of the study is to present the most useful methods and the criteria – pros’ and cons’ – to use, in order to select the appropriate technique for the diagnosis of SRLV infections. In this study, we selected relevant scientific papers, published in the last two decades, and identified the most used methods of diagnostic. Three types of methods were identified and compared: antibody detection (ELISA – enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay – indirect/competitive/home-made, AGID – agar gel immunodiffusion, and WB – westernblotting), identification of specific viral genome by molecular techniques (PCR, RT-PCR and LAMP) and virus isolation by co-cultivation of cell cultures with goat synovial membrane cells/sheep choroid plexus cells. The results were compared in order to decide upon the method of choice for the diagnosis of the lentiviral infection. It can be concluded that all the techniques are useful, but for a result with high confidence, it is important to be decided what will be the targeted purpose (the confirmation of possible outbreaks, the eradication of disease, monitoring of herds/flocks, the criteria to declare/prove a free SRLV herd/flock, or just for the surveillance purpose).
Keywords: srlv, infection, diagnosis, methods, viral genome, elisa, pcr
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