GRAPE BY-PRODUCTS AS BIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES IN ANIMAL NUTRITION: A REVIEW
Published: 31 Jul 2019
Abstract: Modern animal nutrition and feeding is oriented in feed additives right now. There are many different groups and categories of feed additives like probiotics, prebiotics, acidifiers, as well as enzymes. Except those groups, there are some by-products from the agricultural industry with potential to be feed additives. In this way, agricultural production should be more environmental. In the World, there is a grape production over 60 million tons per year. From this production, there are more than 9 million tons of by-products, mainly as pomace and stalk. Many studies published in the World shows, those grape by-products are sources of organic nutrients, minerals, as well as different bioactive substances with beneficial effect on animal organisms. Grape pomace is rich in many nutrients content like crude protein, amino acids, crude fat, essential polyunsaturated fatty acids, crude fibre, NDF, ADF or minerals, like calcium (Ca), potassium (K) or copper (Cu). Dry matter and organic matter digestibility ranged between 50 and 80 %. On other hand, pomaces good sources of fenolic acids, resveratrol, lignans or flavonols (quercetin), flavons, flavanols, izoflavons, antocyanins and others. As many reports shows, grape by-products stimulate feed intake, body weight, daily gain, as well as feed conversion ratio in ruminants nutrition. In non-ruminants nutrition, by-products from grapes processing have positive effect on growth performance, total apparent digestibility and potentially in meat quality. However, on the base of many published reports, grape by-products haven´t negative effect on health status of animals. Grape pomace bioactive substances have a potential for use in animal nutrition as feed additives with strong stimulative and protective effects. With bioactive substances can grape pomace help to better nutrients utilization from feed rations. As some studies shows, organic matter digestibility of grape pomace in very close to the hay. Adequate feeding of pomaces haven´t negative effect on animal metabolism through blood serum biochemical indicators.
Keywords: nutrition, additives, by-products, effect
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