POLISH ENVIRONMENTAL MOVEMENTS DURING THE POLITICAL TRANSFORMATION (1980-1989)
Published: 18 Jul 2016
Abstract: The aim of this article is to present the unique nature of the Polish environmental movements during the political transformation. The presentation of the beginnings of a civil society in the context of sprouting ecological awareness. The following issues have been focused on herein: the history of the Polish environmental movements in the 1980s, their relationship with "Solidarność", forms of activity; the formation of ecological awareness amongst the Poles; the attitude towards the environmental politics of the policymakers; the evolution of the political system in the face of environmental protection issues; the relationship between the forming of ecological awareness and Christianity has been presented as well. The following conclusions have been drawn based on the recreated history: the results of limiting the freedom of speech and expression are different than expected by the authorities – taking the form of increased civil activity, including within social environmental movements; the actions of social environmental movements contributed to the forming of a civil society in Poland.
Keywords: polish environmental movements, political transformation, 1989 in poland, social movement, protest movement, ecological awareness, poland, solidarność
Download full text
Back to the contents of the volume
© 2018 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This permission does not cover any third party copyrighted material which may appear in the work requested.