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Ecology & Safety, Volume 10, 2016

POLISH ENVIRONMENTAL MOVEMENTS DURING THE POLITICAL TRANSFORMATION (1980-1989)
Piotr Kimla
Pages: 463-472
Published: 18 Jul 2016
Views: 686
Downloads: 177
Abstract: The aim of this article is to present the unique nature of the Polish environmental movements during the political transformation. The presentation of the beginnings of a civil society in the context of sprouting ecological awareness. The following issues have been focused on herein: the history of the Polish environmental movements in the 1980s, their relationship with "Solidarność", forms of activity; the formation of ecological awareness amongst the Poles; the attitude towards the environmental politics of the policymakers; the evolution of the political system in the face of environmental protection issues; the relationship between the forming of ecological awareness and Christianity has been presented as well. The following conclusions have been drawn based on the recreated history: the results of limiting the freedom of speech and expression are different than expected by the authorities – taking the form of increased civil activity, including within social environmental movements; the actions of social environmental movements contributed to the forming of a civil society in Poland.
Keywords: polish environmental movements, political transformation, 1989 in poland, social movement, protest movement, ecological awareness, poland, solidarność
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