Abstract: It can be very often found in the field of social sciences an opinion that theory should only solve the question “how it would be” or “what optimal situation or solution is” and it should not take into account why praxis or reality is different than theory expect. Sometimes, when theory suggest some solution or approach and it is not realized, representatives of theory think that theory succeed its task but praxis (reality) does not consider theoretical conclusion. If a science (theory) ignores the topic of relationships between theory and praxis it offers results that science has small chance to help to solve practical problems. Our article shows that theory researching society should not stop its research by telling how results should like but the theory can and should analyze all links that connect theory with praxis. If a theory uses this approach it is more able to influence reality. We concentrate especially on the sector of productive services, it means services oriented on the development and preservation of human capital. We describe how theory can contribute to the development of the sector to be decisive part of the economy, we further define obstacles preventing to achieve this aim. The concentration of the sector of productive services help us analyze which condition must a science researching society fulfill to be real science and to be able not only describe reality but also influence it and to enforce its conclusion into praxis. Such science must include to its methodology knowledge about its history, successes and failures, about possibilities and problems connected with realization of its theoretical approaches.
Keywords: theory, practice, human capital, industry 4.0, productive services