Abstract: At the present stage of Translation Studies development there are many different approaches to translation, one of them that is acquiring translation researchers and scholars’ special interest is the cognitive aspects to understanding the nature of translation as a process and a product. This can be seen from a number of research articles devoted to the discussion of cognitive aspects of translation all over the world. The present paper attempts to critically review existing cognitive approaches and trends to translation proposed by American, European and Russian translatologists. Based on the method of literature review analysis of more than 20 research articles and several books it reveals the commonalities and differences in how Western and Russian researchers study the issue. Among the similarities that were found out by the author are the role of cognition emphasized in both western (American and European) and Russian research works. The unclear usage of the term “cognitive” in the western cognitive translation studies might be considered as one of the differences. A likely explanation for these similarities and differences is that there is a certain gap between the West and Russia in understanding the essence of translation itself. Therefore, the conclusion might be made that a further deep and detailed research on how to apply the cognitive aspects in translation studies needs to be undertaken.
Keywords: cognition, cognitive aspects, cognitive linguistics, translation, translation process