Abstract: The paper discusses the occurring changes in the Russian system of education, first as reforms within a state policy, secondly as objective social process. The goal of our research is to analyze changes that took place in the Russian system of professional education (higher - universities and secondarycolleges) in the last decade and evaluate some results of its functioning. Processes of modernization of the national education system and the results of reforming are estimated as very contradictive in respect of understanding of their necessity by scientific and educational community, experts and the population. Among the goals was analyzing of educational behavior of senior students and their attitudes about obtained competencies and quality of training. Some explanatory features are revealed in secondary education especially in the intentions of school-leavers towards their further professional education. The empirical base of the paper consists of the data of several monitoring sociological surveys of senior school pupils and undergraduate university and college students in Novosibirsk region conducted by IEIE SB RAS.