Abstract: Visual block languages such as Scratch are introduced in computing curricula in several countries. However, there exists a gap between assembling graphical blocks and writing code textually. In order to bridge the gap, we have developed a programming environment which consists of two components, oPEN and PEN. oPEN is a visual block language based on Openblocks and PEN is a usual text code environment. Learners can use both separately. Also, a stack of blocks plugged on oPEN can be converted to PEN’s code. The syntax of oPEN and PEN is expressed in Japanese and novices in Japan can easily understand the code.
Keywords: novice programming environment, visual block language, text code